A strip chart recorder logs the flow rate, and a digital totalizer registers the total gallons. Pressure taps are located about one-half pipe diameter downstream and one pipe diameter upstream. 12. Flumes are generally used when head loss must be kept to a minimum, or if the flowing liquid contains large amounts of suspended solids. Flumes are to open channels what venturi tubes are to closed pipes. Flow can be measured in a variety of ways. With some devices, the flow rate is determined by measuring the liquid's velocity, a function of the pressure differential that forces the liquid through a pipe.Since the pipe's cross-sectional area remains constant, an average flow rate can be determined. Most of the time, the instrument is calibrated by the manufacturer for the specified service conditions. Pressure taps on either side of the plate are used to detect the difference. The mechanical types of water flow meters work by measuring the speed of water flowing through the pipe that causes a piston or turbine to rotate. The flow rate and the specific gravity are inertia forces, and the pipe diameter and viscosity are drag forces. As liquid enters the bottom of the tube, the float begins to rise. Types Of Fluid Flow Meters Used Industrially And Their Applications. Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement. Ultrasonic flow meters can be good alternatives to both electromagnetic flow meters and vortex flow meters. The unit consists of a multiple-bladed rotor mounted with a pipe, perpendicular to the liquid flow. Velocity meters consist of turbine, vortex shedding, electromagnetic, and sonic designs. Applications where coatings may occur are also potential problems for obstructionless instruments such as magnetic or ultrasonic units. ต = liquid's viscosity, cp They use that information along with the pipe’s inner cross sectional area to calculate volume, or the amount of fluid passing through the system during a given time period (i.e. Total weight, including the case, is 22 lb. 1.1 Types of flow measurement devices Fluid flow devices fall into a number of device categories as well as fluid classes. Most velocity-type meter housings are equipped with flanges or fittings to permit them to be connected directly into pipelines. Is local indication or a remote signal required? A strip chart recorder logs the flow rate, and a digital totalizer registers the total gallons. Weirs operate on the principle that an obstruction in a channel will cause water to back up, creating a high level (head) behind the barrier. Gas Meter Types. In its simplest form, the meter consists only of a hinged, swinging plate that moves outward, along with the liquid stream. Flow meter is an instrument used for the measurement of the amount of liquid, gas or vapor that passes through them. In general, the equipment can be classified as differential pressure, positive displacement, velocity, and mass meters. The units were developed primarily to measure liquids with low Reynolds numbers. The flow meters are often installed for measurement during crude oil production, tank farm/storage inventory control, floating production, storage and off-loading (FPSO) as well as refined product loading and offloading. Liquids with suspended solids can also be metered. However, if desired, automatic sensing devices can be used to sense the float's level and transmit a flow signal. The importance of fluid flow meters in everyday industrial processes is understood by all manufacturers across practically all industries, such as the food and beverage, HVAC, petroleum, utility services, … The distinction in the functional method and technical aspects is based on their areas of applications, operational values, and nature of liquid that is being measured by them. What is a flow meter? The use of liquid flow measurement is important is a number of different industries which include power, oil, water and waste treatment. Direct measurements of liquid flows can be made with positive-displacement flowmeters. Another recently introduced microprocessor-based system uses either ultrasonic or float sensors. The pressure of the liquid passing through the measuring chamber causes the disk to rock in a circulating path without rotating about its own axis. And, the measurement accuracy of the element must be good over a reasonable range. There are a wide range of prices for flowmeters. However, if qualified personnel are available in the plant, the user can perform his own calibrations. Pulse-type excitation techniques have reduced power consumption, because excitation occurs only half the time in the unit. The units can be made from a wide selection of construction materials. Because the pipe's cross-sectional area is known and remains constant, the average velocity is an indication of the flow rate. The unit has the ability to measure flows at low Reynolds numbers and still maintain the desired square-root relationship. Electromagnetic flowmeters operate on Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction that states that a voltage will be induced when a conductor moves through a magnetic field. Technological improvements of flowmeters must be considered also. Some liquids passing through flowmeters tend to be abrasive, erosive, or corrosive. But installation mistakes are made. Mass flowmeters cost the most. 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