Three issues which the constitutional convention were unable to resolve were submitted to voters simultaneously with the proposed constitution. The president signed and issued the proclamation declaring Montana a state of the union at 10:40 o'clock this morning. [50] The glaciated plains are generally covered in clay, gravel, sand, and silt left by the proglacial Lake Great Falls or by moraines or gravel-covered former lake basins left by the Wisconsin glaciation 85,000 to 11,000 years ago. Pulitzer Prize winner Wallace Earle Stegner from Great Falls was often called "The Dean of Western Writers". Other rich placer deposits were found at Last Chance Gulch, where the city of Helena now stands, Confederate Gulch, Silver Bow, Emigrant Gulch, and Cooke City. Spending on state supreme court races exponentially increased to $1.6 million in 2014, and to more than $1.6 million in 2016 (both new records). [294], The 1972 constitution has been amended 31 times as of 2015. Montana's motto, Oro y Plata, Spanish for "Gold and Silver", recognizing the significant role of mining, was first adopted in 1865, when Montana was still a territory. [315] The state flower, the Bitterroot, was adopted in 1895 with the support of a group called the Floral Emblem Association, which formed after Montana's Women's Christian Temperance Union adopted the bitterroot as the organization's state flower. Other major north–south highways include U.S. The first claim by a woman was made near Warm Springs Creek by Gwenllian Evans, the daughter of Deer Lodge Montana pioneer, Morgan Evans. Montana Drought and Climate. [67] The stretch of river between Fort Benton and the Fred Robinson Bridge at the western boundary of Fort Peck Reservoir was designated a National Wild and Scenic River in 1976. The first school term started in early winter and lasted only until February 28. The base also hosted the 29th Fighter Interceptor Squadron, Air Defense Command from 1953 to 1968. The treaty was ratified in 1859. [9] The name Montana was added in 1863 to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories (chaired at the time by James Ashley of Ohio) for the territory that would become Idaho Territory. [199] Other languages spoken in Montana (as of 2013) include Assiniboine (about 150 speakers in the Montana and Canada), Blackfoot (about 100 speakers), Cheyenne (about 1,700 speakers), Plains Cree (about 100 speakers), Crow (about 3,000 speakers), Dakota (about 18,800 speakers in Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota), German Hutterite (about 5,600 speakers), Gros Ventre (about 10 speakers), Kalispel-Pend d'Oreille (about 64 speakers), Kutenai (about six speakers), and Lakota (about 6,000 speakers in Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota). [232] Sarah quit teaching the following year, but she later become the Madison County superintendent of schools.[231]. That decreases snowpack—the amount of snow that accumulates over the winter. Elementary and secondary education are overseen by the Office of Public Instruction (led by the elected superintendent of public instruction), in cooperation with the governor-appointed Board of Public Education. Log In Sign Up. [51] Farther east, areas such as Makoshika State Park near Glendive and Medicine Rocks State Park near Ekalaka contain some of the most scenic badlands regions in the state. Montana received a second representative in 1913, following the 1910 census and reapportionment. [72] The Yellowstone joins the Missouri in North Dakota just east of Fort Union. [159], By 1910, homesteaders filed claims on over five million acres, and by 1923, over 93 million acres were farmed. You can find the monthly, or seasonally, or yearly maps in these pages. Previously, these cold spells had killed off bark beetles, but these are now attacking the forests of western Montana. The climate of the lowest zone—the dry valley bottoms—is similar to that in eastern Montana. 2017 Montana Climate Assessment Click below for the individual chapters from the 2017 Montana Climate … A series of major mining discoveries in the western third of the state starting in 1862 found gold, silver, copper, lead, and coal (and later oil) which attracted tens of thousands of miners to the area. The legislative branch had split party control between the house and senate most years between 2004 and 2010, when the mid-term elections returned both branches to Republican control. Geography. [60] Farther downstream, it is joined by the Flathead River before entering Idaho near Lake Pend Oreille. The transcontinental GNR was completed on January 6, 1893, at Scenic, Washington.[141]. As the climate warms, less precipitation falls as snow, and more snow melts during winter. In the 2008 presidential election, Montana was considered a swing state and was ultimately won by Republican John McCain, albeit by a narrow margin of two percent.[307]. The Montana Legislature is bicameral, and consists of the 50-member Montana Senate and the 100-member Montana House of Representatives. The state also has five Micropolitan Statistical Areas, centered on Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell and Havre. The watersheds divide at Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park. Senator in 1978). Just click to start here, or use navigation above! Home (current) About; Home; Montana 1990 USDA Hardiness Zone Map; Montana USDA Hardiness Zone Map. [170] Little's murder and the strikes that followed resulted in the National Guard being sent to Butte to restore order. She was a 25-year-old woman who had traveled to Virginia City via wagon train in 1865. Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is home to three Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer League: the Billings Mustangs, Great Falls Voyagers, and Missoula Osprey. [181] Based on 2013 census numbers, they contain 35 percent of Montana's population,[312] and the counties in which they are located are home to 62 percent of the state's population.[313]. Montana, USA - Weather and Climate - Current conditions, detailed weather forecast and climate information for all cities and towns. In 1881, the Utah and Northern Railway, a branch line of the Union Pacific, completed a narrow-gauge line from northern Utah to Butte. Interactive Map Version 5.0 is now available on the Beta version of the National Water and Climate Center website. Maps; Symbols; Montana's western third is covered by over 50 individual ranges of the . [142] A number of smaller spur lines operated in Montana from 1881 into the 20th century, including the Oregon Short Line, Montana Railroad, and Milwaukee Road. [89] Other major reservoirs include Hungry Horse on the Flathead River; Lake Koocanusa on the Kootenai River; Lake Elwell on the Marias River; Clark Canyon on the Beaverhead River; Yellowtail on the Bighorn River, Canyon Ferry, Hauser, Holter, Rainbow; and Black Eagle on the Missouri River. [205], About 66,000 people of Native American heritage live in Montana. Montana Climate Maps of GFDL-ESM2M. [117], Various indigenous peoples lived in the territory of the present-day state of Montana for thousands of years. The legislature in turn adopted this recommendation by a wide margin. The glaciers in Glacier National Park have receded and are predicted to melt away completely in a few decades. The project is supported by Water for Agriculture Challenge Area grant no. The rocks underlying Great Plains Montana, except for the mountain outliers, are young, soft, and more or less horizontal. The property's value is multiplied by a tax rate, set by the Montana Legislature, to determine its taxable value. The state spans from below the 45th parallel (the line equidistant between the equator and North Pole) to the 49th parallel, and elevations range from under 2,000 feet (610 m) to nearly 13,000 feet (4,000 m) above sea level. [274], Montana is ranked as the least obese state in the U.S., at 19.6%, according to the 2014 Gallup Poll. The largest mining operations were in the city of Butte, which had important silver deposits and gigantic copper deposits. Climate Information. During World War II, the planned battleship USS Montana was named in honor of the state but it was never completed. The Montana Water Court was established by the Montana Water Court Act of 1979. The richest of all gold placer diggings was discovered at Alder Gulch, where the town of Virginia City was established. [227] Another early subscription school was started by Thomas Dimsdale in Virginia City in 1863. [118], The land in Montana east of the continental divide was part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Each report can be downloaded individually or viewed in full here on the website. It is bordered by the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan to the north; Idaho to the west; North Dakota and South Dakota to the east; and Wyoming to the south. [49] Tablelands are often topped with argillite gravel and weathered quartzite, occasionally underlain by shale. [148] Some farmers came with the arrival of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railroads throughout the 1880s and 1890s, though in relatively small numbers. [21], The divide's northern section, where the mountains rapidly give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. Help Centers; Predefined Maps; Web Service; Frequently-Asked Questions; System Downtime Schedule; About Us. Montana, constituent state of the United States of America. It borders Canada to the north, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, and Idaho to the west. Large Detailed Tourist Map of Montana With Cities and Towns. About 13,040 Spanish-language speakers were in the state (1.4% of the population) in 2011. In 1985, the Montana Legislature passed a law allowing towns with fewer than 5,500 residents and unincorporated communities with fewer than 2,500 to levy a resort tax if more than half the community's income came from tourism. [167], The Montanans who opposed U.S. entry into the war included immigrant groups of German and Irish heritage, as well as pacifist Anabaptist people such as the Hutterites and Mennonites, many of whom were also of Germanic heritage. Independent state agencies not within a department or office include the Montana Arts Council, Montana Board of Crime Control, Montana Historical Society, Montana Public Employees Retirement Administration, Commissioner of Political Practices, the Montana Lottery, Office of the State Public Defender, Public Service Commission, the Montana School for the Deaf and Blind, the Montana State Fund (which operates the state's unemployment insurance, worker compensation, and self-insurance operations), the Montana State Library, and the Montana Teachers Retirement System. The Pend Oreille River joined the Columbia River, which flows to the Pacific Ocean—making the 579-mile (932 km) long Clark Fork/Pend Oreille (considered a single river system) the longest river in the Rocky Mountains. These are the maps of precipitation, tas, tasmax, and tasmin for Montana state GFDL-ESM2M. [317], The state song was not composed until 21 years after statehood, when a musical troupe led by Joseph E. Howard stopped in Butte in September 1910. OK Comments Membership info Register new Login There is a Youth Court in every judicial district, and decisions of the Youth Court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court. [184], According to the 2010 Census, 89.4% of the population was White (87.8% non-Hispanic White), 6.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9% Hispanics and Latinos of any race, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 0.6% from some other race, and 2.5% from two or more races. [96] Montana hosts five federally endangered species–black-footed ferret, whooping crane, least tern, pallid sturgeon, and white sturgeon and seven threatened species including the grizzly bear, Canadian lynx, and bull trout. The executive branch is headed by an elected governor. The lesser coat of arms of France as used by the, United States House Committee on Territories, List of amphibians and reptiles of Montana, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Early Indian treaty territories in Montana, List of military installations in Montana, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Treasure State Academic Information & Library Services, Gallatin College Montana State University, City College at Montana State University Billings, Great Falls College Montana State University, Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Bobcat Stadium (Montana State University), Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, Learn how and when to remove this template message, United States congressional delegations from Montana, city courts, justice courts, and municipal courts, American Tradition Partnership, Inc. v. Bullock, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, United States District Court for the District of Montana, United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Montana, "United States Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, 2010 Census of Population and Housing", "Montana tourist numbers down, spending up, report says", Canadian Council for Geographic Education 2013, Geographical Dictionary Of The World 1900, Waterbody Report-Clarks Fork Yellowstone River 2013, "Montana's wolf population remains strong", Montana Office of Public Instruction 2010, "U.S. Navy submarine will be named U.S.S. This changed in 1959 when Lee Enterprises bought several Montana newspapers. The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation administers approximately 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) of land and water surface in the state. Ecotaxes on resource extraction are numerous. He is well known for having bribed his way into the U.S. Senate. Graphical Forecasts - Montana - National Weather Service [47] Foothill regions are often covered in weathered stone or broken slate, or consist of uncovered bare rock (usually igneous, quartzite, sandstone, or shale). Bureau of Economic Analysis. The students were Indian children and the children of Fort Owen employees. Sarah Raymond was paid $125 per month, and Mrs. Farley was paid $75 per month. Or click here for press release or press conference video. The mountains can receive over 100 inches (2,500 mm), for example the Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park gets 105 inches (2,700 mm). [223] It also applies to "luxuries"- defined by law as any item item normally sold to the public or to transient visitors or tourists that does not include food purchased unprepared or unserved, medicine, medical supplies and services, appliances, hardware supplies and tools, or any necessities of life. In coordination with the Montana Governor’s Drought and Water Supply Advisory Committee, the Montana State Library publishes monthly maps of moisture status by county.This webpage allows users to view, download, and compare moisture status maps between months and years beginning in 2002. Open the Interactive Map NEW! [45] The underlying surface consists of sandstone and shale. [295] In 1992, voters approved a constitutional amendment implementing term limits for certain statewide elected executive branch offices (governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state auditor, attorney general, superintendent of public instruction) and for members of the Montana Legislature. No textbooks were used in the school. [147], The Desert Land Act of 1877 was passed to allow settlement of arid lands in the west and allotted 640 acres (2.6 km2) to settlers for a fee of $.25 per acre and a promise to irrigate the land. [7], The name Montana comes from the Spanish word montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word montanea, meaning "mountain" or more broadly "mountainous country". Select from the other forecast maps (on the right) to view the temperature, cloud cover, wind and precipitation for this country on a large scale with animation. Description. The Montana Climate Office provides high-quality, timely, relevant, and scientifically based climate information and services to Montanans. [166] In combination, these laws criminalized criticism of the U.S. government, military, or symbols through speech or other means. "Data" links cover physical science, economic and policy aspects of climate change in each state. Monarch is located in the Little Belt Mountains of central Montana, southeast of Great Falls, on US Highway 89 in the Lewis and Clark National Forest.Monarch is located near Kings Hill Pass.The elevation of Monarch is 4,560 feet. This caused great hardship for farmers, ranchers, and miners. Monthly: 1981-2010 normals History: 2007-2019 [88], The Northern Divide turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak, causing the Waterton, Belly, and Saint Mary Rivers to flow north into Alberta. [10] When Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. The climate here is classified as BSk by the Köppen-Geiger system. Montana did not see a large influx of immigrants from this act because 160 acres were usually insufficient to support a family in the arid territory. Averages are for Missoula International Airport, which is 6 miles from Missoula. However, the grizzly bear and Canadian lynx are listed as a threatened species only for the mainland 48 states. Montana eventually became home to the largest ICBM field in the U.S. covering 23,500 square miles (61,000 km2). [161] In 1910, the Great Falls land office alone had more than a thousand homestead filings per month,[162] and at the peak of 1917–1918 it had 14,000 new homesteads each year. Massive debt was one. Between 1988 and 2006, the pattern flipped, with voters more likely to elect conservatives to federal offices. For other uses, see, "Montanan" redirects here. The first constitution was drafted by a constitutional convention in 1889, in preparation for statehood. [163], In the wake of the legislative action in 1918, emotions rose. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [109] Many Montana cities set heat records during July 2007, the hottest month ever recorded in Montana. [103] Snowfall has been recorded in all months of the year in the more mountainous areas of central and western Montana, though it is rare in July and August. This act brought mostly cattle and sheep ranchers into Montana, many of whom grazed their herds on the Montana prairie for three years, did little to irrigate the land and then abandoned it without paying the final fees. [81] Through the Missouri, these rivers ultimately join the Mississippi River and flow into the Gulf of Mexico. This created Montana's 1st congressional district in the west and Montana's 2nd congressional district in the east. Montana hosts numerous arts and cultural festivals and events every year. Major events include: There are no major league sports franchises in Montana due to the state's relatively small and dispersed population, but a number of minor league teams play in the state. However, property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles, trucks, and business equipment. The tables give the normals for maximum and minimum yearly temperatures based on weather data collected from 1981 to 2010. [281][282] Montana's largest circulating daily city newspapers are the Billings Gazette (circulation 39,405), Great Falls Tribune (26,733), and Missoulian (25,439).[283]. [327], Coordinates: 47°03′10″N 109°38′00″W / 47.0527°N 109.6333°W / 47.0527; -109.6333 (State of Montana), Media related to Montana at Wikimedia Commons, This article is about the State of Montana. In turn, pro-War groups formed, such as the Montana Council of Defense, created by Governor Samuel V. Stewart and local "loyalty committees". They are not term limited. As Montana's official climate data stewards, we strive to provide information for specific sectors of interest by either geography or industry, and assist stakeholders in adapting climate products to their needs. [198] Spanish is the language most commonly spoken at home other than English. [125] The Montana Historical Society, founded on February 2, 1865, in Virginia City, is the oldest such institution west of the Mississippi (excluding Louisiana). Montana has no official nickname but several unofficial ones, most notably "Big Sky Country", "The Treasure State", "Land of the Shining Mountains", and "The Last Best Place". It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east. The health care, service, and government sectors also are significant to the state's economy. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service administers 16,800,000 acres (68,000 km2) of forest land in ten National Forests. Average temperatures and precipitation amounts for more than 170 cities in Montana. Montana's House district is the largest congressional district in the United States by population, with just over 1,023,000 constituents. Historic tribes encountered by Europeans and settlers from the United States included the Crow in the south-central area, the Cheyenne in the very southeast, the Blackfeet, Assiniboine, and Gros Ventres in the central and north-central area, and the Kootenai and Salish in the west. Weather map with the current Temperature for Montana. These steady 25–50 mph (40–80 km/h) (or more) winds can suddenly warm parts of Montana, especially areas just to the east of the mountains, where temperatures sometimes rise up to 50–60 °F (10.0–15.6 °C) for 10 days or longer. These lands are managed by the state for the benefit of public schools and institutions in the state. The design was only slightly modified after Montana became a state and adopted it as their Great Seal in 1893. After hearing tales of the state’s record temperature extremes and the blustery, bitterly cold winter weather conditions in some parts of the state, some nonresidents may think of Montana as an icebox. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest,[citation needed] and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan, are to the north, making it the only state to border three Canadian provinces. This shift continued with the reapportionment of the state's legislative districts that took effect in 1994, when the Republican Party took control of both chambers of the state legislature, consolidating a Republican party dominance that lasted until the 2004 reapportionment produced more swing districts and a brief period of Democratic legislative majorities in the mid-2000s. More than 40 spent time in prison. With an area of 147,040 square miles (380,800 km2),[1] Montana is slightly larger than Japan. These maps are for historical, RCP4.5. According to the 2000 Census, 94.8% of the population aged five and older speak English at home. The eastern portion of the state, however, is a gently rolling landscape, with millions of grazing cattle and sheep, and with only scattered evidence of human habitation. Population (2010) 989,415; (2019 est.) Other railroads followed suit. Montana's Senate district is the fourth largest by area, behind Alaska, Texas, and California. However, farmers faced a number of problems. Historically, Republicans are strongest in the east, while Democrats are strongest in the west. In 1942, the US Army established Camp Rimini near Helena for the purpose of training sled dogs in winter weather. The valleys of the major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains across eastern Montana are deeply incised. As of September 2020[update], the state's unemployment rate is 5.3%.[225]. Weather and agricultural conditions are much harsher and drier west of the 100th meridian. [324][325] When broadcaster Norma Ashby discovered there was no state fish, she initiated a drive via her television show, Today in Montana, and an informal citizen's election to select a state fish resulted in a win for the blackspotted cutthroat trout[326] after hot competition from the Arctic grayling. [119] The trading post Fort Raymond (1807–1811) was constructed in Crow Indian country in 1807. [26] There they join the Saskatchewan River, which ultimately empties into Hudson Bay. These are the maps of precipitation, tas, tasmax, and tasmin for Montana state MIROC4h. The first permanent settlement by Euro-Americans in what today is Montana was St. Mary's (1841) near present-day Stevensville. Montana is one of few geographic areas in the world whose rivers form parts of three major watersheds (i.e. This article in a Butte newspaper celebrates "the blessings of true citizenship". From 1889 to 1909, elections for judicial office in Montana were partisan. The incorporated places are made up of 52 cities, 75 towns, and two consolidated city-counties. They consist of a chief probation officer, one or more juvenile probation officers, and support staff. The Blackfeet nation is headquartered on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation (1851) in Browning, Crow on the Crow Indian Reservation (1868)[206] in Crow Agency, Confederated Salish and Kootenai and Pend d'Oreille on the Flathead Indian Reservation (1855) in Pablo, Northern Cheyenne on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation (1884) at Lame Deer, Assiniboine and Gros Ventre on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (1888) in Fort Belknap Agency, Assiniboine and Sioux on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation (1888) at Poplar, and Chippewa-Cree on the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation (1916) near Box Elder. You can find the monthly, or seasonally, or yearly maps in … Montana is the only state in the union without a modern naval ship named in its honor. [149] Though the word "honyocker", possibly derived from the ethnic slur "hunyak",[154] was applied in a derisive manner at homesteaders as being "greenhorns", "new at his business", or "unprepared",[155] most of these new settlers had farming experience, though many did not.[156]. "Personal Income for Montana". [226] Schools started forming in the area before it was officially a territory as families started settling into the area. [67] The Missouri enters North Dakota near Fort Union,[68] having drained more than half the land area of Montana (82,000 square miles (210,000 km2)). The geographic center of population of Montana is in sparsely populated Meagher County, in the town of White Sulphur Springs. The Montana Weather Map below shows the weather forecast for the next 12 days. Annual Weather Averages Near Missoula. Federal courts in Montana include the United States District Court for the District of Montana and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Montana. [209] South Dakota passed similar legislation in 2007, and Wisconsin was working to strengthen its own program based on this model—and the current practices of Montana's schools. [228] The first school year was scheduled to begin in January 1866, but severe weather postponed its opening until March. These two narrow-valley regions are separated by a broad-valley area in west-central and southwestern Montana. 1100x672 / 116 Kb Go to Map. Montana County Map. Eastern Montana . There are 18 departments and offices which make up the executive branch: Administration; Agriculture; Auditor (securities and insurance); Commerce; Corrections; Environmental Quality; Fish, Wildlife & Parks; Justice; Labor and Industry; Livestock; Military Affairs; Natural Resources and Conservation; Public Health and Human Services; Revenue; State; and Transportation. [310], Montana has one city, Billings, with a population over 100,000; and two cities with populations over 50,000: Missoula and Great Falls. Egal, ob für das Reisewetter an Ihrem Urlaubsziel in Montana oder das Wetter vor Ihrer Haustüre, hier finden Sie ständig aktualisierte Wetterberichte und Wettervorhersagen für Montana. [278] As of August 2013, there are 527 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Montana, with 114 such AM stations. [66] Nearly one-third of the Missouri River in Montana lies behind 10 dams: Toston, Canyon Ferry, Hauser, Holter, Black Eagle, Rainbow, Cochrane, Ryan, Morony, and Fort Peck. [25] It causes the Waterton River, Belly, and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. Sent to Butte to restore order color of that location to the name has only representative! Of public schools and institutions in the territory of the lowest zone—the dry bottoms—is. Inches ( 881 mm ), [ 1 ] Montana was the first 48 States killed off bark beetles but! The 1930s, various indigenous peoples lived in Minnesota or Wisconsin, Massachusetts or Maine 287 ] [ ]. 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